WM8960 -- Driver for the WM8960 codec¶
This driver is used to control a WM8960 codec chip. It is a Python translation of the C-Code provided by NXP/Freescale for their i.MX RT series of MCUs. Very little has been added, and just a few API related names were changed or added to cope with the naming style of MicroPython.
The primary purpose of the driver is initialization and setting operation modes of the codec. It does not do the audio data processing for the codec. That is the task of a separate driver.
The WM8960 supports an I2C interface, in addition to the audio interface. The
connection depends on the interface used and the number of devices in the
system. For the I2C interface, SCL and SDA have to be connected, and of course
GND and Vcc. The I2C default address is
WM8960(i2c, sample_rate, *, bits=16, swap=SWAP_NONE, route=ROUTE_PLAYBACK_RECORD, left_input=INPUT_MIC3, right_input=INPUT_MIC2, sysclk_source=SYSCLK_MCLK, mclk_freq=None, primary=False, adc_sync=SYNC_DAC, protocol=BUS_I2S, i2c_address=WM8960_I2C_ADDR)¶
Create a WM8960 driver object, initialize the device with default settings and return the WM8960 object.
Only the first two arguments are mandatory. All others are optional. The arguments are:
- i2c is the I2C bus object.
- sample_rate is the audio sample rate. Acceptable values are 8000, 11025, 12000, 16000, 22050, 24000, 32000, 44100, 48000, 96000, 192000 and 384000. Note that not every I2S hardware will support all values.
- bits is the number of bits per audio word. Acceptable value are 16, 20, 24, and 32.
- swap swaps the left & right channel, if set; see below for options.
- route Setting the audio path in the codec; see below for options.
- left_input sets the audio source for the left input channel; see below for options.
- right_input sets the audio source for the right input channel; see below for options.
- play_source sets the audio target for the output audio; see below for options.
- sysclk_source controls whether the internal master clock called "sysclk" is directly taken from the MCLK input or derived from it using an internal PLL. It is usually not required to change this.
- mclk_freq sets the mclk frequency applied to the MCLK pin of the codec. If not set, default values are used.
- primary lets the WM8960 act as primary or secondary device. The
default setting is
False. When set to
False, sample_rate and bits are controlled by the MCU.
- adc_sync sets which input is used for the ADC sync signal. The default is using the DACLRC pin.
- protocol sets the communication protocol. The default is I2S. See below for all options.
- i2c_address sets the I2C address of the WM8960, with default
If mclk_freq is not set the following default values are used:
- sysclk_source == SYSCLK_PLL: 11.2896 MHz for sample rates of 44100, 22050 and 11015 Hz, and 12.288 Mhz for sample rates < 48000, otherwise sample_rate * 256.
- sysclk_source == SYSCLK_MCLK: sample_rate * 256.
If the MCLK signal is applied using, for example,. a separate oscillator, it must be specified for proper operation.
Tables of parameter constants¶
In addition to initialization, the driver provides some useful methods for controlling its operation:
Specify the source for the left input. The input source names are listed above.
Specify the source for the right input. The input source names are listed above.
volume(module, volume_l=None, volume_r=None)¶
Sets or gets the volume of a certain module.
If no volume values are supplied, the actual volume tuple is returned.
If one or two values are supplied, it sets the volume of a certain module. If two values are provided, the first one is used for the left channel, the second for the right channel. If only one value is supplied, it is used for both channels. The value range is normalized to 0.0-100.0 with a logarithmic scale.
For a list of suitable modules and db/step, see the table below.
mute(module, mute, soft=True, ramp=wm8960.MUTE_FAST)¶
Mute or unmute the output. If mute is True, the output is muted, if
Falseit is unmuted.
If soft is set as True, muting will happen as a soft transition. The time for the transition is defined by ramp, which is either
Set the audio data route. For the parameter value/names, see the table above.
Enable or disable a module, with active being
True. For the list of module names, see the table above.
Note that enabling
MODULE_MONO_OUTis different from the
WM8960.monomethod. The first enables output 3, while the
WM8960.monomethod sends a mono mix to the left and right output.
Enable a module. For the list of module names, see the table above.
Disable a module. For the list of module names, see the table above.
Enable Stereo 3D exansion. level is a number between 0 and 15. A value of 0 disables the expansion.
If active is
True, a Mono mix is sent to the left and right output channel. This is different from enabling the
MODULE_MONO_MIX, which enables output 3.
Enables or disables ALC mode. Parameters are:
channel enables and sets the channel for ALC. The parameter values are:
- ALC_OFF: Switch ALC off
- ALS_RIGHT: Use the right input channel
- ALC_LEFT: Use the left input channel
- ALC_STEREO: Use both input channels.
mode sets the ALC mode. Input values are:
- ALC_MODE: act as ALC
- ALC_LIMITER: act as limiter.
alc_gain(target=-12, max_gain=30, min_gain=-17.25, noise_gate=-78)¶
Set the target level, highest and lowest gain levels and the noise gate as dB level. Permitted ranges are:
- target: -22.5 to -1.5 dB
- max_gain: -12 to 30 dB
- min_gain: -17 to 25 dB
- noise_gate: -78 to -30 dB
Excess values are limited to the permitted ranges. A value of -78 or less for noise_gate disables the noise gate function.
alc_time(attack=24, decay=192, hold=0)¶
Set the dynamic characteristic of ALC. The times are given as millisecond values. Permitted ranges are:
- attack: 6 to 6140
- decay: 24 to 24580
- hold: 0 to 43000
Excess values are limited within the permitted ranges.
Enables or disables a deemphasis filter for playback, with active being
True. This filter is applied only for sample rates of 32000, 44100 and 48000. For other sample rates, the filter setting is silently ignored.
Disable all modules.
Run WM8960 in secondary mode (default):
# Micro_python WM8960 Codec driver # # Setting the driver to Slave mode using the default settings # from machine import Pin, I2C import wm8960 i2c = I2C(0) wm=wm8960.WM8960(i2c, 32000, left_input=wm8960.INPUT_MIC1) wm.set_volume(wm8960.MODULE_HEADPHONE, 100)
Run WM8960 in primary mode:
# Micro_python WM8960 Codec driver # # Setting the driver to Master mode using specific audio format settings # from machine import Pin, I2C import wm8960 i2c = I2C(0) wm=wm8960.WM8960(i2c, 44100, primary=True, bits=16)
Run WM8960 on a MIMXRT10xx_DEV board in secondary mode (default):
# Micro_python WM8960 Codec driver # # Setting the driver to Slave mode using the default settings # swap the input channels such that a MIMXRT Dev board mic, which # is connected to the right input, is assigned to the left audio channel. # from machine import Pin, I2C import wm8960 i2c = I2C(0) wm=wm8960.WM8960(i2c, sample_rate=16_000, adc_sync=wm8960.SYNC_DAC, swap=wm8960.SWAP_INPUT, sysclk_source=wm8960.SYSCLK_MCLK)
Record with a Sparkfun WM8960 breakout board with Teensy in secondary mode (default):
# Micro_python WM8960 Codec driver # # The breakout board uses a fixed 24MHz MCLK. Therefore the internal # PLL must be used as sysclk, which is the master audio clock. # The Sparkfun board has the WS pins for RX and TX connected on the # board. Therefore adc_sync must be set to sync_adc, to configure # it's ADCLRC pin as input. # from machine import Pin, I2C import wm8960 i2c = I2C(0) wm=wm8960.WM8960(i2c, sample_rate=16_000, adc_sync=wm8960.SYNC_ADC, sysclk_source=wm8960.SYSCLK_PLL, mclk_freq=24_000_000, left_input=wm8960.INPUT_MIC1, right_input=wm8960.INPUT_CLOSED)
Play with a Sparkfun WM8960 breakout board with Teensy in secondary mode (default):
# The breakout board uses a fixed 24MHz MCLK. Therefore the internal # PLL must be used as sysclk, which is the master audio clock. # The Sparkfun board has the WS pins for RX and TX connected on the # board. Therefore adc_sync must be set to sync_adc, to configure # it's ADCLRC pin as input. from machine import I2C i2c=I2C(0) import wm8960 wm=wm8960.WM8960(i2c, sample_rate=44_100, adc_sync=wm8960.SYNC_ADC, sysclk_source=wm8960.SYSCLK_PLL, mclk_freq=24_000_000) wm.set_volume(wm8960.MODULE_HEADPHONE, 100)